2024-05-15 08:22:00来源:网络


  新概念英语第三册课堂笔记第三十八课 The first calender 最早的日历

  【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

  ●calendar n. 历法,日历

  ●historian n. 历史学家

  ●unique adj. 无与伦比的

  ●steadily adv. 不断地

  ●solely adv. 唯一地

  ●video n. 录像

  ●CD-ROM n. (只读)光盘驱动器

  ●bewilder v. 令人眼花缭乱

  ●deduce v. 推断,推理

  ●scanty adj. 不足的,贫乏的

  ●clue n. 线索

  ●insignificant adj. 不重要的

  ●shed v. 使流出,泻

  ●advent n. 出现,到来,来临

  ●agriculture n. 农业

  ●assumption n. 假定,设想

  ●dot n. 小圆点

  ●symbol n. 符号

  ●engrave v. 雕刻

  ●ivory n. 象牙制品

  ●mammoth n. (古)长毛象

  ●phase n. 月相,天相

  ●tusk n. 獠牙,长牙、象牙

  ●primitive adj. 原始的

  ●nomad n. 游牧民

  ●depict v. 描画,描绘

  ●correlate v. 使相互联系

  ■calendar n. 历法,日历

  calender 轮压机

  ■historian n. 历史学家

  historic 具有历史意义的

  This is a historic speech.

  historical 与历史研究有关系的

  historical research 历史研究

  ■unique adj. 无与伦比的

  unique: uneaqualed

  Speech is a unique human ability

  unique 不能接受比较级,可以接受quite, almost, nearly, surely, really等修饰,但不能接受rather,very等词的修饰。

  unique 独一无二的,因唯一而独特

  speical 注重性质的特殊

  especial 强调超过其他的全部

  Eg: This is a matter of especial importance.

  This is a especially important matter.

  particular 特定的,着重同类中某一个所有独特的性质

  Pineapples have particular flavour. 菠萝有特别的味道。


  extraordinary 特别的,与众不同的

  Eg: The warm weather is exceptional for Jamuary.

  ■steadily adv. 不断地

  ■solely adv. 唯一地

  ■video n. 录像

  ■CD-ROM n. (只读)光盘驱动器

  ■bewilder v. 令人眼花缭乱

  bewilder: confuse

  Eg: she was bewildered by so many beautiful dresses.

  puzzle 某问题因复杂而令人费解

  Eg: I am puzzled by the problem.

  perplex 难以理解(包含焦虑不安,不知如何解决的意思)

  Eg: He is perplexed for the answer.

  bewilderment: n.

  in bewilderment 茫然不知所措

  ■deduce v. 推断,推理

  deduce: determine or decide sth. by given facts.

  Eg: I deduce the conclusion from the given facts.

  deduce …from 从…中推论,推断

  infer 推断(不表示过程)

  Eg: What can you infer from the text?

  deduce==> (ant.) indece 归纳

  ■scanty adj. 不足的,贫乏的

  scanty: too few, not enough

  scanty knowledge 一知半解

  a scanty crop 欠收

  be scanty of sth 奇缺

  be short of 短缺

  Eg: The village school is scanty of textbooks. 这乡村学校奇缺教材。

  be want of=in need of 需要……

  ■clue n. 线索

  ■insignificant adj. 不重要的

  ■shed v. 使流出,泻

  shed: pour out

  shed tears 泪流满面

  shed light 发光

  shed light on sb. 启发,启迪

  shed one’s blood for country 为祖国而流血。

  shed one's clothes 脱去衣服

  ■advent n. 出现,到来,来临

  advent: coming or arrival

  at the advent of winter 在冬天到来的时候

  at the advent of 在…到来的时候

  since the advent of 自从…的到来

  ■agriculture n. 农业

  ■assumption n. 假定,设想

  ■dot n. 小圆点

  ■symbol n. 符号

  ■engrave v. 雕刻

  ■ivory n. 象牙制品

  ■mammoth n. (古)长毛象

  ■phase n. 月相,天相

  ■tusk n. 獠牙,长牙、象牙

  ■primitive adj. 原始的

  ■nomad n. 游牧民

  ■depict v. 描画,描绘

  ■correlate v. 使相互联系


  Lesson 38 The first calender 最早的日历

  Listen to the tape then answer the question below.

  What is the importance of the dots, lines, and symbols engraved on stone, bones and ivoury?

  Future historians will be in a unique position when they come to record the history of our own times. They will hardly know which facts to select from the great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates. What is more they will not have to rely solely on the written word. Films, videos. CDs and CD-ROMs are just some of the bewildering amount of information they will have. They will be able, as it were, to see and hear us in action. But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task. He has to deduce what he can from the few scanty clues available. Even seemingly insignificant remains can shed interesting light on the history of early man.

  Up to now, historians have assumed that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture, for then man was faced with a real need to understand something about the seasons. Recent scientific evidence seems to indicate that this assumption is incorrect.(仅提供部分文章)


  in the unique position 处于无以伦比,独一无二的情况

  come to: start, begin

  背熟:They will hardly know which facts to select from the great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates.

  select from 从……中进行选择(同类中)


  一、有三种情况choose和 select不能互换:

  1.当在两者中选一个时只能用choose, 即choose between

  Eg: We have to choose between leaving early and paying for taxi.

  2.choose可带 wh从句

  Eg: I'll let you choose where we should go to eat.

  3.choose to do 只能用choose.

  Eg: What invariably happens is that a great number of things choose to go wrong at precisely the same moment.(L33 )

  He has deliberately chosen to lead the life he leads and is fully aware of the consequences. (L27)

  二、select比choose更正式, 即在许多同类的人或物当中根据客观标准对这两个加以比较,鉴别,认真地挑选出最好的、最喜欢的、最有用的。

  great mass of==too much==agreat amount of

  evidence 不可数名词;不能手a great many, a large number of

  Eg: She selected a blue dress from the wardrobe.

  You have been selected to present us on the committee.

  what is more 更有甚者,furthremore,moreover 是的意思

  what is worse 更糟糕的是

  rely on==count on==depend on 依靠,指望

  Eg: You can’t rely on others.

  He can’t be relied on.

  solely adv. 唯一地

  means: only, just, nearly

  bewilder 令人眼花缭乱

  bewildering 令人眼花缭乱的

  bewildered 感到眼花缭乱的

  背熟:They will be able, as it were, to see and hear us in action.

  in action 行动中的,活动中的

  as it were 可以说,似乎,好像

  Eg: He is as it were a walking dictionary. 他可以说是一部活字典

  Computers can never as it were lead independent lives. 电脑不能过独立的生活

  as it is=in fact=in really=actually=as a matter of fact 事实上

  Eg: I thought things would get better,but as it is , they are getting worse.

  In many ways children lives as it were in a different world from the adults. 在许多方面,孩子们可以说过着一种与大人完全不同的生活。

  But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task.

  be faced with: be in the position in which one must deal with a problem or unpleasant situation.


  Eg: Automobile industry is faced with a bad future now. 汽车工业正面临着令人担忧的未来。

  A great many people are faced with losing their jobs. 许多人面临着失业。

  In my opinion, you are faced with a problem as it were how to get enough time to study English.

  The student attempting to learn English well in a year is faced with a difficult task. 企图在一年之内把英语学好的学生面临着巨大的难题。

  available adj. 可利用的

  Eg: I have dictionary availabe for you.

  Is there a place available for us to have a chat.

  I know you are in need of help, but excuse me, I don’t have any students available for you.

  remains==ruins 遗迹,遗物


  shed light on=throw light on=cast light on 意思是:make a matter clear or understood 解释,说明,提示

  Eg: This information shed light on the problem. 这份情报会搞清楚这一问题。

  Can you shed any light on the case of the fire? 你能够解释这次火灾吗?

  She will shed light on the case of stolen jewels. 好将能够揭示这次珠宝失窃案。

  ★★★Paragraph 1★★★

  in the unique position

  select from

  the great mass of evidence

  the bewildering amount of information

  what is more

  as it were

  in action

  be faced with


  shed interestion light on

  up to now=so far 到目前为止

  come into being==come into existence 产生,出现

  come to power 上台

  come into use 开始使用

  be faced with a real need to do sth. 面临着做某事的真正需要。

  Eg: We are faced with a real need to learn English well.

  indicate 揭示

  which 引导定语从句,修饰the last Ice Age

  correlate 相互联系

  it is connected with==it is associated with

  in fact 可以替换为as it is; actually, in reality

  as near as 接近

  ★★★Paragraph 3 remembered ★★★

  historian has long been puzzled by

  live by hunting and fishing

  read this difficult code

  it has long been known that

  make a real effort to understand the seasons

  【Multiple choice questions】


  1 In assuming that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture, historians made the mistake of _____ .

  a. relying solely on the written word

  b. disregarding the markings that early man had been responsible for

  c. supposing that nomadic man had no reason to understand the seasons

  d. not connecting the passage of days with the phasesof the moon

  2 The scientific evidence that has recently come to light is that _____ .

  a. nomads engraved the bones and tusks of the animals they killed

  b. noads lived by hunting and fishing

  c. nomads travelled widely in various parts of the world

  d. the markings made by variousnomadic groups all have a definite pattern

  3 The paintings which have been found on the walls of nomadic dwelling places _____ .

  a. have taught historians something about the nomadic way of life

  b. have no other content than their artistic merit

  c. are not thought to be connected with an ancient calendar system

  d. are invariably accompanied by odd dots, lines and symbols


  4 It _____ as if they could see nad hear us in action. (ll.6-7)

  a. was b. were c. should be d. will be

  5 Even _____ seem insignificant remains can shed interesting … (ll.8-9)

  a. they b. which c. what d. those to

  6 Historians are now able to read this difficult code _____ markings made in … (ll.15-16)

  a. with correlating b. having correlated c. which correlates d. for they correlate

  7 _____ be a definite relation between these paintings and the …(ll.19-21)

  a. It could b. There can c. There may d. It might


  8 Historians have long tried to _____ dots, lines and … (l.13)

  a. puzzle b. puzzle out c. riddle d. detect

  9 By correlating markings made in _____ parts of the world … (ll.15-16)

  a. different b. several c. many d. other

  10 ---- historians have been able to read _____ . (l.16)

  a. these puzzling signs b. this hard law c. thesedifficult signals d. this uneasy letter

  11 Until recently historians assumed that calendars _____ with the advent of agriculture. (l.10)

  a. came to existence b. came toexisting c. cme to exist d. were existential

  come to +动词原形: come to record ; come to exist ; come into existence

  12 The people who lived by hunting and fishing during the last Ice Age _____ .(ll.14-15)

  a. wandered from place to place b. lived in villages c. first learnt to write d. learnt how to farm the land

  【Key to Multiple choice questions】

  1. B 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. B 9. A 10. A 11. C 12. A




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