●evolve v. 逐渐形成
●high-handed adj. 高压的，专横的
●incompetent adj. 不够格的，不称职的
●over-zealously adv. 过分热情地
●safeguard v. 保护
●parliamentary adj. 国会的
●qalified adj. 合格的
●grievance n. 不平，冤屈
●Justiteombudsman n. (瑞典的)司法特派员
●ombudsman n. (瑞典和英国的)司法特派员
●secretive adj. 保密的
●correspondence n. 来往信件
●alter v. 改变
●accusation n. 谴责，指控
●ascertain v. 查出，查明
●prejudiced adj. 有偏见的，不公平的
●prompt adj. 即时的
◆evolve v. 逐渐形成
vt. develop gradually
Eg: He has developed / evolved a new system for running the factory.
evolve a system for doing sth.
Man has evolved from the ape. 人类是从类人猿进化而来的。(演化)
Eg: The evolution isn’t unexpected.
-ism / socialism / evolutionism 进化论
evolutional 发展的， 进化的
resolve (L50) / resolve to do sth. 下定决心做某事
resolution / revolve
Eg: The earth is round, and every day and night it is revolving.
involve vt. 卷入，牵涉 / be involved in
Eg: He is involved in the case.
◆high-handed adj. 高压的，专横的
◆incompetent adj. 不够格的，不称职的
competent: having ability / qualification to do sth.
be competent to do sth.
be competent for sth.
qualified / fit
Eg: He is competent / qualified / fit for the job.
incompetent / unfit
competent: sufficient / enough adequate
Eg: He has a competent knowledge of French.
He is competent to teach the language.
competnece / qualification for / to
the competence for / to
Eg: He has the ability to do the job.
He has the capability / capacity of doing the job.
He has the competence to do / for the job.
◆over-zealously adv. 过分热情地
over- zealous / zealously
◆safeguard v. 保护
safequard: n. / vt. (书面用语，比较正式)
Eg: We must safeguard our motherland.
We must safegiard our state territorial integrity.
Keeping clean is a safeguard against disease.
safeguard / guard 保安
Eg: We need several safeguards.
safeguard / protect our eyes
◆parliamentary adj. 国会的
◆qalified adj. 合格的
◆grievance n. 不平，冤屈
Eg: I can’t go to the cinema with you tonight because I have to comfort my friend in grief.
grieve: cause grief to
Eg: It grieves me to see him in such bad health.
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grieve for / about / over
grieve / in grief
grieve / it grieves me
◆Justiteombudsman n. (瑞典的)司法特派员
◆ombudsman n. (瑞典和英国的)司法特派员
◆secretive adj. 保密的
◆correspondence n. 来往信件
keep up correspondence 保持通信联系
keep in touch with sb. by writing letters
Eg: We keep up correspondence recently for several years.
by / through correspondence
by writing letters
correspondence school 函授学校
correspondence course 函授课程
correspondence: agreement / similarity 相似，一致
in correspondence with sb. 与......一致 / 保持通信联系
bring sth. into correspondence with sth.
Eg: We must bring your idea into correspondence with mine.
◆◆◆alter v. 改变
alter / change
alter: change in character, appearance etc. partly
Eg: The shirt must be altered. It is too large.
Eg: Great changes have taken place in our country.
He changed a lot after so many years of hard work, so I even can’t recognise him.
Eg: He converted to Buddhism.
The new house is converted from an old one.
Eg: We can transform one form of energy into another.
Eg: Customs vary with the times
◆accusation n. 谴责，指控
◆ascertain v. 查出，查明
find out / get to know / make certain / make sure
Eg: Let us ascertain when we will hold the party.
读音：certain / ascertain
◆prejudiced adj. 有偏见的，不公平的
Pride and Prejudice 傲慢与偏见
◆prompt adj. 即时的
Lesson 53 In the public interest 为了公众的利益
Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
What could not be reported in the official flees?
The Scandinavian countries are much admired all over the world for their enlightened social policies. Sweden has evolved an excellent system for protecting the individual citizen from high-
handed or incompetent public officers. The system has worked so well, that it has been adopted in other countries too.
The Swedes were the first to recognize that public official like civil servants, police officers, health inspectors or tax-collectors can make mistakes or act over-zealously in the belief that they are serving the public. As long ago as 1809, the Swedish Parliament introduced a scheme to safeguard the interest of the individual. A parliamentary committee representing all political parties appoints a person who is suitably qualified to investigate private grievances against the State. The official title of the person is 'Justiteombudsman', but the Swedes commonly refer to him as the 'J.O.' or 'Ombudsman'. The Ombudsman is not subject to political pressure. He investigates complaints large and small that come to him from all levels of society. As complaints must be made in writing, the Ombudsman receives an average of 1,200 letters a year. He has eight lawyer assistants to help him and examines every single letter in detail. There is nothing secretive about the Ombudsman's work, for his correspondence is open to public inspection. If a citizen's complaint is justified, the Ombudsman will act on his behalf. The action he takes varies according to the nature of the complaint. He may gently reprimand an official or even suggest to parliament that a law the altered. The following case is a typical example of the Ombudsman's work.
A foreigner living in a Swedish village wrote to the Ombudsman complaining that he had been ill-treated by the police, simply because he was a foreigner. The Ombudsman immediately wrote to the Chief of Police in the district asking him to send a record of the case. There was nothing in the record to show that the foreigner's complaint was justified and the Chief of Police strongly denied the accusation. It was impossible for the Ombudsman to take action, but when he received a similar complaint from another foreigner in the same village, he immediately sent one of his layers to investigate the matter. The lawyer ascertained that a policeman had indeed dealt roughly with foreigners on several occasions. The fact that the policeman was prejudiced against foreigners could not be recorded in the official files. It was only possible for the Ombudsman to find this out by sending one of his representatives to check the facts. The policeman in question was severely reprimanded and was informed that if any further complaints were lodged against him, he would be prosecuted. The Ombudsman's prompt action at once put an end to an unpleasant practice which might have gone unnoticed.
for: because of
be admired for
Eg: He is admired by us for his humor.
背熟： evolved an excellent system for protecting the individual citizen from..
evolve a system for doing sth.
protect / safeguard from
Eg: I can’t conceal my amusement. 我不能够掩饰我幸灾乐祸的心情。
Your excitement is beyond me. 你的激动的表现/心情是我难以理解的。
evolve an excellent system for doing sth.
has worked so well: workable
adopt / adapt
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were the first / secone / last / only to do sth.
public officials: public officers
in the belief that: believe in
Eg: He turned to me for help because he believed that I could help him.
He turned to me for help in the believe that I could lend him a hand.
He turned to me for help believing that I could lend him a hand.
in the hope: hoping
in the thought: thinking
Eg: We come here in the hope that we will learn English well.
We come here hoping to learn English well.
Judges, however wise or eminent, are mortak and can make mistakes.
as long ago as 1809: dating back to 1809
date back to / date from
introduce : bring in 引入
Eg: He introduced science to the game boxing.
He brought science into the game boxing.
Eg: Sometimes, you need to find a right place to put your latest addition.
Eg: The statue represented a goddess.
A monitor representing his classmates.
be qualified to do sth. / be competent to do sth.
refer to sb. as 把某人称之为......
背熟：The Ombudsman is not subject to political pressure.
be subject to sth. 易受......的影响 (to 介词); 隶属于
Eg: He is subject to cold during winter.
be likely to do (不定式to)
Eg: He is likely to catch cold during winter.
be prone to
Eg: He is prone to flu during winter.
be liable to do
Eg: Your plan is subject to my approval.
We have a good plan, but the plan must be subject to our teacher’s approval.
背熟：He investigates complaints large and small that come to him from all levels of society.
complaints large and small 形容词短语做定语，放在被修饰词之后
Eg: A great many students, boy and girl, went to the party yesterday.
Many people, old and yound, visit the shop.
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be made in writing: be written down
an average of 平均
I work for 8 hours every day.
I work for an average of 8 hours a day.
We have got 15 students in each class.
Eg: We have got an average of 15 students in each / every class.
in detail / in details
on his behalf: in his interest
vary / varied / various
Eg: The refrigerators are useful during hot summer. (错)
The refrigerator is useful during hot summer.
Refrigerators are useful during hot summer.
A refrigerator is useful during hot summer.
a law (should) be altered
suggest to sb.
背熟：The following case is a typical example of the Ombudsman's work.
The following case is a typical example of it you can judge by yourself.
A foreigner living in a Swedish village: A foreigner who is living in a Swedish village.
A foreigner wrote a letter to the Ombudsman complaining...
The editor sent a fax instructing the journalist to get statistics.
simply because: only because / just because
accuse sb. of doing sth.
the matter: the case
背熟：The lawyer ascertained that a policeman had indeed dealt roughly with foreigners on several occasions.
ascertain that / sth.
made sure that / made certain that
dealt roughly with: ill-treated
be prejudiced against sb. / sth.
Eg: If you are prejudiced against sth. , you must take objection to it.
find this out: to discover it
check the facts: verify the facts
It is only possible for us to learn the language well if we study hard.
representative / represent
a committee representing all political parties
in question: 当事的，所涉及的
practice: what the policeman did / the way that he treated with foreigners
put an end to
You prevent me from doing the work
背熟：The Ombudsman's prompt action at once put an end to an unpleasant practice which might have gone unnoticed.
which might have gone unnoticed: which might have gone without being noticed
Eg: If they had had only one more child, they would have lived in obscurity unnoticed.
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