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新概念英语第二册语法解析及练习题(16)

2018-10-05 10:45:00 来源:网络新概念资料下载

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  分词

  1.分词的性质:

  具有形容词性质,可以在句中担任表语、定语、宾补、状语,现在分词表示主动,且动作在进行:过去分词表示被动,或动作已完成。

  2.分词的形式:

  例: write (vt) rise (vi)

  时态 主动语态 被动语态 主动 过去分词

  现在时 writing being written rising risen /

  完成时 having written having been written having risen /

  3.分词的用法:

  (1)定语 分词置于被修饰名词前

  分词短语于置于被修饰名词后

  a sleeping baby = a baby who is sleeping

  a running dog = a dog which is running

  a broken glass = a glass which is broken

  a beaten team = a team which is beaten(beaten 是被打败的意思)

  This is the problem discussed at the last meeting.

  The problem being discussed is very important.

  (2)表语:The book is interesting.

  He is interested in the book.

  The news is exciting.

  He feels excited.

  (3)宾语补足语:

  When I woke up, I found my mother sitting beside me.

  I'd like to havethis package weighed.

  掌握精髓:动词不定式作宾语表示动作的全过程,而现在分词作宾补表示动作正在进行;过去分词表示被动概念。

  (4)状语:(以下例句值得一背!)

  ① If you turn to the left, you'll find the station.

  → Turning to the left, you'll find the station.

  ② As I didn't receive her letter, I called her up by telephone.

  → Not receiving her letter, I called her up by telephone.

  ③ While I was walking to school yesterday morning, I met a friend.

  → Walking to school yesterday morning, I met a friend.

  ④ When she was asked it she had any bad habit, she answeredthat she was a heavy smoker.

  → Asked if she had any bad habit, she answered that she was a heavy smoker.

  你知道吗?注意:在运用此类句型时主语前后要保持一致。

  ① Whenschool was over, the boys went home.

  → Being over, the boys went home. ×

  School being over, the boys went home. √

  ② As my homework has been done, I have nothing else to do.

  → My homework having been done, I have nothing else to do.

  ③ Ifweather permits, I'll start tomorrow.

  → Weather permitting, I'll start tomorrow.

  ④ I fwe judge from his face, he must be ill.

  → Judging from his face, he must be ill.(这里应该是 we judging ...,但若主语是we, one, you表示“一般人”,主语可省略)

  实际上,这里涉及到独立主格结构问题,以后在作分解!

  4.分词的时态:

  现在分词一般时表示此动作与主句谓语动词同时发生。

  现在分词完成时表示此动作在主句谓语动词之前发生。

  Entering the room, hesaw he. (几乎同时)

  Not having tried his best, he failed in the exam. (分词动作在前)

  5.语态:现在分词一般时被动表动作正在被进行,完成时被动强调分词所表示的动作先被完成。

  The ships being loaded and unloaded belong to us.

  Having been warned of typhoon, the fishermen sailed for the nearest harbor.(渔民先被告知而后驶向港口)

  练习:

  1. The ________ news made them ________.

  A. excite / exciting B. exciting / excited

  C. exciting / to be excited D. excited / excited

  2. ________ an answer from the committee, he was worried.

  A. Having not got B. Getting not

  C. Not having got D. Having not been got

  3. ________, all the quarrels came to an end.

  A. The lost money was found B. Was the lost money found

  C. Because the lost money found D. With the lost money found

  4. Many of our dreams ________ impossible in the past have come true.

  A. were considered B. to be considered

  C. considering D. considered

  5. The hall was so noisy for the speaker to make himself ________.

  A. hear B. being heard C. hearing D. heard

  6. After a whole day's heavy work, the old worker returned home, ________.

  A. hungry and exhausted B. hungry and exhausting

  C. hungry and being exhausted D. hungry and exhaust

  答案:

       1. B 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. D 6. A

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