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新概念第三册语法总结:独立主格结构

2021-07-23 15:31:00来源:网络

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  此独立形式只是一个小短语,而不是主谓完整的简单句,又称之为独立分词构句。当分词意义上的主语不是主句的主语时,必须在分词前保留意义上的主语,否则语意不通。(定义有点费解,多看几遍)

  示例:

  Being ill in bed, I can't go to school.

  Mother being ill in bed, I can't go to school.

  (1) 独立主结构形式可用以表时间,理由,条件,伴随状态等

  He lay on the grass, the sun shining upon him.

  =He lay on the grass, and the sun was shining upon him.

  Weather permitting, I'll start tomorrow.

  =If weather permits, I'll start tomorrow.

  School being over, the boys went home.

  =When school was over, the boys went home.

  The sun having set, we arrived at the station.

  =After the sun had set, we arrived at the station.

  王牌重点:当独立主格结构的主语表示“一般人”,如:we, one, you时,主语可省略,此用法常用于下列表达方式中:

  generally speaking 一般来说

  strictly speaking 严格地说

  talking of ... 谈到

  speaking of ... 说到

  judging from ... 由……来判断

  taking all things into consideration 把一切都考虑在内

  considering ... 考虑到……

  [示例]:

  If we judge from his face, he must be ill.

  =Judging from his face, he must be ill.

  He has lots of books if we consider that he is young.

  =He has lots of books, considering that he is young.

  (2)with 复合结构也是独立主格结构形式之一。这种结构在句中作状语(表示原因,方式,伴随等)和定语,作定语时紧随被修饰名词后。

  1.with+ 名词 + 介词短语:

  The woman with a baby on her back is my sister.

  The boy rushed into the room, with his schoolbag in his hand.

  2.with + 名词 + adj.

  with the door open, he left the classroom.

  3.with + 名词 + adv.

  With the gloves off, she felt cold.

  With the lights on, the building looks beautiful.

  4.with + 名词 + 现在分词(主动)

  with + 名词 + 过去分词(被动)

  Withthe guide leading us, we got to the village.

  The boy was crying with the vase broken.

  5.with + 名词 + 不定式

  With the hard work to be done, we have to prepare for it.

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