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新概念英语第三册语法解析:虚拟语气

2018-07-12 14:04:54来源:网络

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  虚拟语气用来表达不可能或难以实现的愿望,与事实相反的假设,通常分为基本的三种形式。

  1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟:

  If + did / were + ..., ... would/ should/ could/ might + do (动词原形)

  If I were you, I would go abroad at once. (I am not you.)

  If he knew it now, he could help me. (He doesn't know it now.)

  2. 与过去事实相反的虚拟:

  If + had done + ..., ... would (might) have done ...

  If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have phoned you. (I didn't know your telephone number.)

  If you had come here a little earlier just now, you might have met her. (You didn't come here earlier.)

  3. 与将来事实相反的虚拟:

  (1) If + should + v., ... would + v. (可能性很小)(译作“万一”)

  If it should rain tomorrow, you could stay at home.

  If I should fail, what should Ido?(2) If + did / were to + v ..., would + v. (完全不可能)

  If the sun were to rise in the west, I would lend you the money.

  If you finished it in 3 minutes, I would give you my car.

  4. 特殊重点[简单联想记忆]:

  ● 下列动词后的“宾语从句”中需要用虚拟形式,即should + 动词原形,shoud在美国英语中要省略(TOEFL语法考点)。此类常见的动词有:order, ask, decide, demand, require, recommend, suggest(建议), insist(坚决要求), advise, etc.

  He suggested that we (should) help them with English.

  The teacher ordered that the homework (should) be finished within half an hour.

  ● 下列名词后的同位语从句中要用“should + 动词原形”(should可省去)的虚拟。此类常见的名词有:suggestion, order, request, demand, importance, proposal.

  He made a suggestion that we (should) have a fancy dress party.

  I think it is a thing of importance that it (should) be done soon.

  ● It is / was important / necessary / natural / essential / advisable / strange / surprising, ect. + that +主语+ should + v.

  It is strange that you should say such a thing.

  It was important that you should tell me all the information.

  ● wish后的宾语从句中,as if 后的状语从句中,须用下列的虚拟形式:

  主 + wish+ (that) + 主 + did / were(指现在)

  had done(指过去)

  would+ v.(指将来)

  I wish that I met my uncle now.

  I wish I had met my uncle yesterday.

  I wish I could meet my uncle tomorrow.

  ● It is (high) time that ... + did / were ...

  It is time that you went to bed.

  ● would rather that ... + did / were ...

  I would rather that you were not here now.

  ● would sooner that ... + did / were ...

  I would sooner that you got up earlier.

  I would sooner that you were not my brother.

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