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新概念英语第一册语法解析:时间状语从句

2018-07-05 15:17:27来源:网络

  新东方在线新概念小编为大家带来新概念英语第一册语法解析:时间状语从句一文,希望对大家的新概念英语学习有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注新东方在线新概念英语学习网(http://nce.koolearn.com)!

  一、定义

  顾名思义,状语从句就是指句子中的状语原本是由单词或短语来充当的,但当状语是由句子来充当时,这个充当状语的句子就叫状语从句。如:

  He left the party at eight.

  He left the party when it was eight.第一句中的at eight是时间状语,是由短语来充当的。

  第二句中的when it was eight也是时间状语,但是由句子来充当的,这个句子就叫(时间)状语从句。

  二、分类

  英语里的状语总共有九种,即:时间、地点、原因、结果、目的、条件、比较、方式、让步。而英语里的状语从句也因此包括这九种,接下去我们就一一来梳理这九种从句的用法。需要注意的是,状语从句的学习其实就是有关连接这些状语从句的连接副词的学习。

  时间状语从句

  常连接时间状语从句的连接词有:

  when, while, as;

  before, after;

  as soon as, hardly...when..., no sooner...than...;

  till, until;

  since;

  by, by the time, by the end of。

  (一)when、while和as的用法

  三者都表示“当...时候”,需要注意的是:

  1、当所要描述的动作或状态发生的时间是现在时间时

  1)when要采用“主将从现”的原则,即:主句谓语动词采用一般将来时,从句谓语动词采用一般现在时。如:

  When he comes, I will tell him the good news.

  需要注意的是,此时的从句谓语动词虽然采用的是一般现在时,但其实是表将来的。如上句中的he comes,他其实还没来。

  此外,主句也有可能是祈使句或是含有情态动词的句子。如:

  When he comes, please tell him the good news.

  When he comes, you can tell him the good news.

  2)as的用法跟when差不多,但其主句谓语动词也可以使用一般现在时。如:

  A sudden chill of horror sweeps over her as she feels the drip of saliva upon her hand. (当她感觉到滴到她双手上的唾液时,恐怖的寒栗突然遍布了她全身。)

  3)while所在的句子主从句的谓语动词一般都采用现在进行时。如:

  While my mother is cooking in the kitchen, my father is working in the garden.

  2、当所要描述的动作或状态发生的时间是过去时间时

  1)when所在的从句谓语动词一般采用一般过去时,主句谓语动词采用过去进行时或是一般过去时。如:

  When he entered the room, she was playing the piano.

  But when I returned the door was open.

  需要注意的是,when也有可能表示“正在这时”。如:

  I was walking in the park, when a little child bumped into me. (我正在公园里散步,这时一个小孩撞到了我怀里。)

  2)as与while的用法差不多,即:as和while所在的句子的谓语动词一般用过去进行时,而另外一个句子的谓语动词则采用过去进行时或一般过去时。如:

  As/While the royal visitors were passing by, the crowd burst into cheers.

  As/While she was reading in the study, he was watching TV in the living room.

  (二)before和after的用法

  before表示“在...之前”,after表示“在...之后”。使用时要注意要描述的动作或状态时基于现在时间还是过去时间。

  1、基于现在时间

  这时,其用法基本遵循时间状语从句的“主将从现原则”,即before或after所在的从句谓语动词采用一般现在时,其主句谓语动词采用一般将来时。如:

  Before the guests come, we will have to clean the house.

  After he comes, we will set out for Shanghai.

  2、基于过去时间

  这时,before所在的从句谓语动词要采用一般过去时,其主句谓语动词要采用过去完成时,而after所在的从句谓语动词要采用过去完成时,其主句谓语动词要采用一般过去时。如:

  Before it began to rain, she had already arrived home.

  After she had arrived home, it began to rain.

  (三)“一...就...”的表达

  英语里常用来表“一...就...”的结构主要有:as soon as, hardly...when..., no sooner...than...。、

  1、as soon as

  as soon as既可以用在现在时间中,也可以用在过去时间中。当用在现在时间中时,遵循“主将从现”的原则;当用在过去时间中时,as soon as所在的从句谓语动词采用一般过去时,其主句谓语动词采用一般过去时或过去完成时(如果要强调主从句谓语动作的连续性很强,则采用一般过去时)。如:

  现在时间:As soon as she comes to the party, we will give her a big surprise.

  过去时间:As soon as he got to the station, the train left/had left.

  2、hardly...when...和no sooner...than...

  这两个句型都表示“一...就...”,而且用法都差不多,即when和than所在的从句谓语动词采用一般过去时,其主句谓语动词采用过去完成时。如:

  He had hardly arrived at school when the class began.

  He had no sooner arrived at school than the class began.

  需要注意的是,hardly有时可以换成scarcely或rarely或barely。

  3、特殊表达

  英语中用来表达“一...就...”的结构还有:the moment/instant/minute/second...;immediately/instantly/directly...;at/on等。如:

  He came directly I called.

  The moment she gets off the bus, we will give her a big hug.

  On hearing the news, he burst into cries.

  (四)till和until

  都表示“直到...时候”,两者一般可以相互替换,但till多用于肯定句,until多用于否定句。如:

  She will stay in the office till he comes back.

  She won't leave the office until he comes back.

  需要注意的是,until常与not搭配使用,而且会用在强调句中。如:

  He didn't arrive until the film had already begun.

  It was not until the film had already begun that he arrived.

  (五)since

  当since用来引导时间状语从句时,意思是“自从...以来”,其往往被当作是主句谓语动词要采用完成时的标志性时间状语。如:

  Since he was born, he has lived here for over eighty years.

  Since we last met, we haven't seen each other for more than ten years.

  (六)by、by the time和by the end of

  这组结构都表示“到...时候为止”,其主句谓语动词一般都要采用完成时。需要注意的是,这些结构后面所接的时间不同,主句谓语动词就要采用不同的完成时态。

  1、后接将来时间

  这时,主句谓语动词一般要采用将来完成时或将来完成进行时。如:

  He will have read ten books by next Friday this month.

  She will have been learning English for ten years by the end of this term.

  They will have already left by the time she comes.

  2、后接过去时间

  这时,主句谓语动词一般要采用过去完成时。如:

  They had learned English for ten years by last Saturday.

  The students had already left the party by the time she arrived.

  We had worked on the bridge for two years by the end of last month.

  以上就是新东方在线新概念英语学习网为你带来的新概念英语第一册语法解析:时间状语从句,更多精彩敬请关注新东方在线新概念英语学习网http://nce.koolearn.com)。

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